Vocal Therapy Specialists
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Extrinsic Muscle
The exterior muscles surrounding the larynx; primarily the muscles of the face, the base of the tongue, and the neck.

Exercises in which the length of the vocal cords remain constant (do not change) as the intensity increases: such as sustaining a humming tone.

Nodules (Node)
A corn, callus or blister on the vocal cords caused by friction at specific areas of the vocal cords.

Spasmodic Dysphonia (SD)
A voice disorder caused by muscle spasm.

Vocal Fold (also Called Vocal Cords)
A pair of specialized tissue in the voice box (larynx) that vibrate for sound production; comprised of ordered layers of epithelium, superficial lamina propria, vocal ligament, and thyroarytenoid muscle.

Vocal Fold Approximation  
The coming together of the vocal cords.

Vocal Ligaments (or inferior thyroarytenoid)
Are two strong bands enclosed within the vocal folds. Each ligament consists of a band of yellow elastic tissue, attached in front to the angle of the thyroid cartilage, and behind to the vocal process of the arytenoid.